Flower field operation management and disease prevention
Many flower farmers mentioned disease prevention as "spraying drugs" (spraying pesticides), "playing drugs", "playing several lids, and playing a few spoons." However, drug control is only one of the measures for disease prevention. If the field operation is not properly managed, spraying fungicide alone cannot control the disease effectively and economically. For the crops with higher economic value, the cultivation concept should also be promoted. In the integrated management cultivation mode, disease management is a part of the disease, but it is not an independent link. It cannot be used as long as there is a disease spraying. The concept of operation management, only comprehensive management can achieve integrated control of flower diseases.
The etiology caused by non-biological diseases, due to mutual infection, it is called non-infectious diseases, also known as physiological diseases. Diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and other pathogenic organisms are contagious and are called infectious diseases.
Physiological diseases, such as inappropriate temperature, inappropriate illumination, unregulated water, unsuitable nutrient conditions, excessive soil salinity, harmful gases and substances, and inappropriate pH and pH of the soil, can affect the normal growth and development of flowers and cause diseases. Therefore, it can be seen that physiological diseases cannot be controlled effectively by “fighting drugs”.
Causes of Infectious Diseases The pathogenic organisms that cause flower diseases include fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, mycoplasmas, viroids, and parasitic seed plants. The degree of harm and damage of these disease-causing organisms to flowers depends on pathogenic organisms, flowers, and external environmental conditions. Therefore, it is known that "fighting drugs alone" cannot completely control contagious diseases.
Pathogenic organisms, susceptible flowers, and suitable environments can occur and spread disease when they coexist. If there are susceptible flowers and pathogenic organisms in the greenhouse, there are no suitable environmental conditions for the disease. The disease will not appear. Therefore, the basic countermeasures for disease prevention and control are how to break this triangular relationship, so that the three can not appear in the cultivation shed at the same time, such as reducing the density of pathogenic organisms or even eliminating them completely, planting disease-resistant varieties, and changing the cultivation environment.
Field Operation Management Impacts on Disease Prevention and Control Greenhouse Management Anthracnose and bacterial diseases often occur in hot and humid environments. Botrytis cinerea occurs in cold and humid climates. Poorly ventilated facilities can be cultivated. Powdery mildew is easier to deal with. occur. Therefore, the regulation of environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, light, soil moisture, and pH in the cultivation shed is particularly important for disease prevention and control.
Maintaining ventilation and light transmission in the greenhouse is an extremely important external condition that suppresses the occurrence of diseases. Even in the cold winter months, the side membranes or windows must be uncovered at noon every day to reduce the humidity in the sheds and plant surfaces. Otherwise, in March, it will induce a large area, such as carnations and leaf spot. , such as gray mold of gerbera.
Low light intensity leads to overgrowth of plants that are more susceptible to disease, shade in the summer to prevent damage from strong light, but overshadowing can make flower branches softer and the light intensity should be controlled at a level suitable for plant growth and development.
Plant management The wounds caused by transplanting and picking up the hearts can become the invading point of the germs. As far as possible, they can choose the sunny day for topping to facilitate wound healing and prevent the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. When carrying out cultivation operations such as topping and cutting, the tools should be sterilized frequently to avoid transmission of germs through fingers and tools.
Reasonable regulation of row spacing can effectively reduce the occurrence of diseases.
Irrigation management drip irrigation, furrow irrigation or near the surface of the water supply, to avoid the splash of irrigation water, the pathogenic bacteria spores or bacteria brought to the healthy plant, can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. Care must be taken not to allow water to remain in the petals or leaves. Although it is a very small amount of water, it is an indispensable factor in the germination, invasion, and reproduction of most plant pathogens. In addition, if it encounters high temperatures in the hot sun, it can easily cause damage. Burns.
If the soil moisture is too high, the oxygen content in the soil will decrease and the carbon dioxide concentration will increase, which will promote the damage to the roots caused by the root rot. The soil moisture is too low and the seedling stage blight caused by Rhizoctonia is more serious. In addition, off-site cultivation is also a cultivation method to prevent the occurrence of the disease.
Fertilization to manage plant growth requires nutrients, but the application of too much fertilizer will cause harm to the plants, EC values are too high, and plant damage caused by fertilizer damage, poor growth and other issues are often visible. The choice of fertilizer type depends on the type of flower, and the different types of flowers will have different nutrient requirements. The strength of the plant will also affect the probability of disease.
Hygiene management Field health can be said to be the simplest and most effective prevention and control strategy. The diseased plants, diseased leaves, and weeds are removed and burned away from the cultivation field to reduce or even completely eliminate the density of pathogens in the field. Plant residues cannot be accumulated in a certain place on the base, allowing them to rot, because these residues will Become a breeding ground for germs, rely on the wind blowing splashes, increase the chance of health and disease.
Systemic diseases such as bacterial diseases, viral diseases, or blight diseases, once the pathogens invade the plants, are not easy to prevent and control. The whole plant of the susceptible strain should be removed (along with the soil or matrix of the root ring) as soon as possible, and be taken out of the cultivation field to be burned. Only by preventing the spread of the disease. If only the diseased leaves and branches are cut off, the purpose of inhibiting the spread cannot be achieved. The pathogens may be brought into contact with the roots by the pruning tool or the roots, and the infected plants may be infected to the nearby healthy plants. Instead, it accelerated the spread of the disease. Besides, the clean and cultivated environment is not only easy to manage, but also looks relaxed and happy.
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